Administrative and political measures should be adopted for the promotion of national integration. it is the responsibility of the state to adopt such measures. In order to understand the meaning of national integration, we must, first of all, have a clear comprehension of the terms like ‘Nation’ and Nationality The concept of ‘Nationality’ first defined in distinct terms by the Muslim historiographer and sociologist.

Among the modern western political scientists Laski is the person who has defined ‘Nationality’ in clear terms, according to him, the feeling of nationhood ‘marks off those who share in it from the rest of mankind’. This implies that if a particular group of people develops a feeling that they are one among themselves, and the factors that make them one mark them off and separate them from the rest of humanity, the group of people turns into nationality and taking a step forward, this rationality transforms itself into a nation. (Nation is a nationality having political aspirations.)

 national integration, we simply mean that the people of Pakistan should forget their linguistic, They should know that they are Muslims and Pakistani first and all their other identities are subservient to their Islamic identity. Pakistan is like a big picture, different language, tribes, clans, customs and traditions are like the different colour of this picture. Every colour is important in its own place, erasing it will mean spoiling the picture itself. But these colours taken apart from the picture have no existence or meaning, these are beautiful and meaningful only up till the time they are placed at their appropriate place in the picture. Removing colour from the picture will spoil goth the picture and the colour. Each colour should remain steadfast to its position as colour and should not try to take the place of the picture.


This is a normal course, passing through which, unidentifiable groups of people gradually develop into well-defined and identifiable national groups. Members of any group of people are, generally, different from each other in many respects, and at the same time, they have certain, things in common. But for one reason or another, they are inclined to formed Reasons that separate the numbers of civil society from one another, or in other forget their differences and strengthen their bonds of unity when this happens, a nation is words, the points of difference they have, are called ‘centrifugal forces’.

Administration with responsible and patriotic outlook:

The federal administration is a national institute, under civil services officers belonging to one province are posted in other provinces. If these officers perform their duties with a real sense of service and consider themselves to be the servants of the people and not their masters or rulers, there will be no reason for the people of any province to complain that they were being subjected to alien rule. This is also necessary that all the provinces are given their due share in civil and military services. If this is not done certain parts of the country will suffer a sense of deprivation.

      Restructuring of the provinces:

            Our Country comprises of four provinces, these provinces have, somewhat, different cultural-linguistic and ethnic characteristics. Such differences are common in all countries of the world; (for example India, our closest neighbor in a hundred times more heterogeneous than we are). But unfortunately, due to the conspiracies of the unpatriotic elements, these differences have become a challenge for national integration. Such groups have emerged in all the four provinces of Pakistan, there are people who speak in terms of narrow parochial nationalism instead of a wider Pakistani nationalism. They take pride in calling them Punjabis, Sindhis, Pakhtoons of Balochis, and not Pakistanis. If these disruptive tendencies are allowed to have a freehand they may become a real challenge for our national integrity. In order to prevent the people from thinking that the provinces can form independently administered or sovereign units we must plan to restructure the boundaries of our provinces. This will definitely mean carving out more provinces out of the already existing four provinces. New provinces will be demarcated as administrative units and not as cultural, linguistic, or ethnic entitles.


            The issue of provincial autonomy has always caused great problems for our constitutor makers and legislatures. This problem gave birth to many of the graver crises of our constitutional and political history and caused hindrances in the constitution made the Existence of minor conflicts between the demands of national integration and the claim of provincial autonomy is natural to exist. In order to resolve this conflict, the following proposals can be taken into consideration:

Bi-Cameral Legislature/ Powerful upper House:

            A bicameral legislature was established for the first time under the 1973 constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. The upper house was named Senate. Lower Hose or the National Assembly, is the popularly elected hose and represents the people of Pakistan. The upper house, the senate, is the house of Provinces. All the four provinces, big or small, have been given equal representation in the senate. This is a step that has been taken in the right direction. This is a step of utmost importance necessary to dispel the sense of deprivation that our small provinces have. Now the bigger provinces, merely by virtue of their numerical strength. It is necessary to keep up with these new constitutional securities.

            Separation of powers:

In the federal forms of government, powers are divided between the federal and the provincial government. For a strong federal system, separation of power between the central government and the federation units is an essential requirement. Provincial governments should be given adequate powers, this creates a sense of self-confidence in the people, and the center should be given only such powers sense of self –confidence in the people and the center should be given only such powers as are indispensable to keep the nation integrated. Our 1973 Constitution provides adequate safeguards for provincial autonomy. All the four provinces expressed satisfaction regarding these safeguards. The only thing now required is the implementation of the constitutional clauses in letter and spirit.          

The democratic system of Government: Democratic system creates a sense of responsibility and participation in the people. They start to love their country and live for it. Dictatorship, on the contrary, creates a sense of deprivation among the people; and they get alienated from the national and collective affairs. They develop enmity not only toward the rulers but also towards the provinces or the class to which the rulers belong. Their dislike for the rulers may turn into hatred for the country. In this way, national integration is jeopardized. To prevent this state of affairs from happening we should try to establish a democratic system based on the principles of Islamic ideology.    

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