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The Executive branch of federal government is responsible for governance in Pakistan. Lets explore, how executive branch works?
The Executive branch of Pakistan
The President is the head of state, represents the unity of the republic and is elected by a simple majority of an electoral college consisting of members of the two houses of federal legislature and of the four provincial legislatures. The President can be removed if he or she is found unfit to hold office due to physical incapacity or impeached in case of violation of the constitution in a joint sitting of the federal houses by votes of not less than two-thirds of its total membership.
The Prime Minister is elected by members of the lower house of the federal legislature after every general election, and other cabinet ministers are appointed by the President according to the advice of the Prime Ministers. The executive authority of the federal government is exercised in the name of the President by the Prime Minister, or through him, by the federal ministers. The federal cabinet under the Prime Minister aids and advises the President in the exercise of her or his functions.
However, in the performance of her or his functions, the President is to act on and in accordance with the advice of the cabinet or the Prime Minister, except in cases where the constitution has vested the President with discretionary powers. The Prime Minister is to keep the President informed about all matters of internal or foreign policy, and all legislative proposals the federal cabinet intends to bring before parliament.
The President may not remove the Prime Minister unless the President is satisfied that he or she has lost the confidence of the majority in the lower house. For that purpose, the President has to summon a meeting of the lower house and require the Prime Minister to obtain a vote of confidence. The Prime Minister could also be removed on the initiative of the lower house when the house passes a vote of no-confidence against her or him. The federal cabinet is collectively responsible to both houses of parliament.
The President can summon, prorogue, address and send messages to either house of the federal legislature, separately or jointly. The President also has the power of dissolving the lower house of the federal legislature either on the advice of the Prime Minister or on her or his own initiative if the house passes a vote of no confidence against the Prime Minister and there is no other member who commands the support of the majority in the house.
The President assents to bills passed by the federal legislature within 10 days. He or she may return a bill to the legislature with a message that the whole or any part of the bill be reconsidered and any amendment proposed by her or him, in which case the bill will be reconsidered by the joint sitting of the legislature and if passed by majority votes, it is sent to the President for assent. The President will then give assent to the bill within 10 days or the bill will automatically become a law.
President in the executive branch
The president of Pakistan serves as the country’s chief executive. He works in accordance with the recommendations made by the Prime Minister. Following the adoption of the 8th amendment, all of his authority has been transferred to the Prime Minister.
The members of the federal and provincial legislatures make up the electoral college, which is responsible for electing him.
- He is the head of the state, represents the unity of the republic, and is Supreme Commander of the armed forces; the executive authority of the federal government is exercised in the name of President by the Prime Minister & Cabinet;
- He acts on the advice of the Prime Minister or Cabinet;
- He exercises discretionary constitutional powers on his own initiative without the advice of Prime Minister or the Cabinet;
- He can remove the Prime Minister if he/she fails to obtain a vote of confidence from the National Assembly;
- He can summon, prorogue, address and send messages to the federal legislature, and assent to or veto a bill of the federal parliament;
- He can promulgate ordinances when the parliament is not in session;
- He can dissolve the National Assembly on advice of Prime Minister or on his/her own initiative in case no-confidence motion is passed against existing Prime Minister and no other person has the required votes to become the new Prime Minister;
- He appoints high state functionaries like the Attorney-General, five advisors of Prime Minister, Governors of the provinces, non-ex officio members of the National Finance Commission, Auditor-General, Judges of the higher judiciary, Chief Election Commissioner, members of the Council of Islamic Ideology, Chairman of the Public Service Commission, heads of the armed forces;
- He can issue a proclamation of emergency.
President could be removed from office for physical incapacity or impeached for violation of the constitution by joint sitting of the federal parliament.
Prime minister the Federal executive branch
He is the head of government and executive head of federal government. He is the head of federal bureaucracy.
He has been appointed through the power of vote. Elections held every five years. He made his federal cabinet.
- Prime Minister is the executive head of government and keeps the President informed of all matters of internal and external policy, as well as all legislative proposals;
- Prime Minister and Cabinet have to aid and advise the President in the exercise of her or his functions;
- Prime Minister nominates 3 members each of the Council of Common Interests and National Economic Council.
Prime Minister could be removed by National Assembly if a vote of no-confidence is passed against him/her;
Cabinet collectively responsible to Senate and National Assembly